Racial Inequality of Neighborhoods in Many US Metropolitan Areas has Negative Social Effects.

  • Characterized the neighborhood’s opportunity space for different ethnic groups using the central 50% of the distribution.
  • Quantify the the degree of separation across racial/ethnic boundaries within the top 100 metropolitan areas (MA).
  • Analyze the association between degree of separateness in ethnic neighborhoods with poverty and other factors such as racial segregation

Study finds that Art Therapy and Cognitive processing therapy reduces symptoms for PTSD for War Veterans

Story Highlights:
  • Study finds that Art Therapy and Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) provides greater benefit to processing PTSD trauma.
  • Art therapy provides a positive form of expression.
  • Eight 75-minute sessions for art therapy and CPT combined.
  • Participants claim that both CPT and arts therapy combined are beneficial.
Being able to express yourself isn't an easy thing to do, especially when you've gone through a traumatic experience. A study done by the American Art Therapy Association explored whether combining art therapy with cognitive processing therapy (CPT) would provide greater benefit in processing trauma and reducing symptoms in veterans with combat related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) than using CPT alone. 

Female Sports Journalists Prove to be Satisfied with their Level of Employment

Story Highlights

  • Female's are on the rise and are beginning to tackle the male dominated profession of sports journalism.
  • Female sports journalists have indicated overall satisfaction with their employment through a conducted study.
  • A total of 78 surveys were completed by members of the Associations for Women in Sports Media, who identified as full-time employees of a daily newspaper.
A study was conducted to provide a theoretical foundation to enhance and enrich the understanding of female sports journalists and their level of satisfaction. To determine satisfaction, areas of employment were broken up into six distinct facets. By the use of a survey, researchers were able to measure job satisfaction, and discover that female sports journalists indicated overall satisfaction with their employment.

Study Finds that Learning to Listen Improves Communication With Disabled People

  • People with disabilities want better listening skills and more personal communication from their caretakers such as their doctors or teachers.
  • Researchers created a course to help caretakers to learn about how to communicate with their patients or students better.
  • Study required medical students to sit down with patients and have one-on-one conversations learning about the patient's personal life and experiences.

People with disabilities have spoken up about the mistreatment they receive while getting care at hospitals and other means of care such as in schools or focus groups.

They have complained about the lack of professional communication and feel as if this lack of professionalism is due to their disabilities.

NCAA athletes speak out against corruption and injustice within the organization

Ben Simmons a rookie point guard for the Philadelphia 76ers did an interview speaking out against the NCAA In the interview, he addressed the exploitation of players and the blatant disregard for their well being Ben Simmons called for immediate changes to be made, likely won't happen as NCAA holds too much power.

Minorities trust police less than the majority because of past experiences

Story Headlines:

  • The minority of social classes tend to not trust police because of what has happened throughout history.
  • There have been too many instance where police have treated people unequal. Especially the African American race, so this study is important to see why this is.
  • Everyone is created equal and everyone should be able to feel safe when they encounter police, police are supposed to help citizens not hurt them.
Trust is something that is very important, if you do not have trust then relationships are broken. Peoples trust in police should always be there because those are the people you should call when you are in danger. But if you talk to some minorities, they would state they are the last people they would call and they would not be treated equally. This is a problem in this country because what has been happening with police brutality, especially to African Americans.

Study Finds Eating Meat and Dairy Makes You More Likely to Die, But Not Everyone Agrees

  • Participants consuming the most protein were more likely to die from diabetes and cancer
  • Animal protein was responsible for the increased risk of dying, not plant protein or fat
  • Mice with breast or skin cancer developed fewer and smaller tumors on a lower-protein diet
  • Lower protein consumption, mostly from plant sources, is recommended for optimal health and longevity, although experts do not all agree
A 2014 study in the journal Cell Metabolism found that those who consumed the most protein had a 75% greater chance of dying than those consuming the least, almost completely due to animal protein. Furthermore, the high-protein participants were 73 times more likely to develop and die from diabetes and four times more likely to die from cancer than low-protein participants.

Health apps such as Fitbit have been shown to increase fitness and improve body image

  • The majority of Fitbit users analyzed believe the device has a positive impact on their body satisfaction.
  • Females were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body and want to change it in some way before they used Fitbit device and application.
  • Health tracking devices motivate users to meet exercise goals that give users a sense of accomplishment which is especially helpful for college students that do not have time to exercise on a daily basis.

Study concurs high quality of a questionnaire aimed to more comprehensively measure cyberbullying

Story Highlights:

  • A trans-atlantic study concurs with previous research that the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ) is an ideal tool to assess cyberbullying, especially in regions without much research on cyberbullying, such as Latin America. 
  • The ECIPQ unprecedentedly measures cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression together and can compare the measurements across countries. 
  • The ECIPQ is already being tested in developing cyberbullying prevention programs such as the ConRed Cyberbullying Prevention Program and evaluate its success in reducing cyberbullying factors.

The study conducted by Herrera-Lopez et al. compared behaviors associated with cyberbullying in adolescents of Colombia to those of Spain to: 1) determine the ECIPQ's accuracy and quality in measuring different factors of cyberbullying 2) increase the availability of an instrument to measure both cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression in Latin America; and 3) compare the prevalence of cyberbullying and its factors in Colombia and Spain.

How you use the internet could make you more lonely

Story Highlights:

  • Face to face interactions proves to be higher compared to online relationships.
  • Users with a lower level of self-identity, typically spend more time online and are lonelier
  • Internet use is associated with moratorium identity status: a stage where adolescents are ready to make commitments but are hesitant.


The reasons you may be using the internet may actually reflect on you more than you think. A study was conducted that explored the effects of internet usage and self-concept, motivation and relationships. The study found that those who frequented the internet had more symptoms of PIU, pathological internet usage, a term similar to internet addiction. Users that had more symptoms were associated with more negative stigma, such as loneliness, and a weaker sense of identity,

The Prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in U.S. Navy Healthcare Personnel Differs Between Genders

Story Highlights:
  • Women had significantly higher odds of screening positive for PTSD than did men 
  • The results took into account combat exposure, previous psychiatric history, and demographics 
  • Women have increased roles in the military and higher rates of post-trauma emotional stress

In a sample of U. S. Navy Healthcare Personnel, a higher percentage of men screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than women. However, after accounting for covariates including demographics, previous anxiety and depression, and deployment experiences such as deployment duration and injury while deployed, a multivariable model revealed that women had significantly higher chances than men of having a PTSD screen positive.

Anorexia related disorders should be addressed on highly active pro-anorexia Twitter accounts and websites

Story Highlights:
  • Around 21% of Twitter users indicated in their biography to having at least one disorder or disease, especially depression and self-harm attitudes
  • Out of the identified 341 Twitter pro-anorexia profiles, only 20 accounts (6%) included a warning message
  • Nearly 95% of the users self-identified as females with an age range of 12-28

A recent study on the prevalence of pro-anorexia Twitter accounts sought out to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of the account creators and the evolution of the profiles. 

Almost all users shared their personal information and eating disorder-related experiences. In the users' biography description, 52.1% of the postings focused on self-harm while 50.7% mentioned depression.  

While the Twitter accounts were being observed, 37 profiles changed their visibility to private. Though effectiveness of warning messages is possible, accounts without such messages exhibit a greater follower base.

Study Links Positive Cell Phone Memories to Cell Phone Dependency Anxiety

Story Highlights:
  • Users perceive the smartphone as an extension of themselves 
  • The more memories created with one's phone leads to more dependency 
  • Dependency leads to the fear of being without one's phone (Nomophobia)

Exergames found to increase mood as it relieves stress and works out the mind

Story Highlights:
  • Exergames were found to have correlation to increase mood and vigor throughout the day after playing because the exercising relieves stress and releases dopamine which eases the mind.
  • Exergames are defined as: The activity of playing video games that involve physical exertion and are thought as a form of exercise
  • The study was conducted with students and staff from a northern Taiwan university

When online, men and women change their avatar's appearance based on whether they are with strangers or friends

Story Highlights:
  • People who go online feel less restrictive in their appearance when interacting with strangers than they do with friends and family.
  • Women care more about how they are viewed online than men.
  • Women online are more private and less open than men.
A study was undertaken to show the effects that social situations can have on people while online. When people interact online with audiences that they do not know, they tend to be less concerned with how their avatar is customized. However, when interacting with friends or family, people tend to change their avatar based on the social norms within that current environment. This can be due to the fact that the avatar is interacting with people actually known in real life. Virtual context can externally influence avatar features. Virtual context includes game settings, job context, or health related interventions. People change how their avatar looks in order to receive social approval from the audience as well as helping their own self esteem.

Athletic Identity in College Athletes Impacts Career Maturity

  • Female athletes scored higher on the measure of career maturity than male athletes
  • Caucasian student-athletes believed significantly less than African-American athletes that they would be able to finacially support themselves as professional athletes  
  • Study has implications for professionals working with student athletes on career development

Age, Self Monitoring, and Perseverance found to be factors influencing risky cybersecurity behavior

Story Highlights:
  • Results found that out of nearly 500 participants, around 51% had shared their password before. 
  • Three main traits were found to be statistically significant for people that were more likely to share passwords; young age, a high score on self-monitoring, and a high score for low perseverance.
  • Knowledge about cybersecurity was not found to be a distinguishing factor between those who share passwords and those who don't. 

Invasive Pythons Are Causing Massive Mammal Die-off In South Florida

Story Highlights

- Burmese pythons are devastating mammal populations in the Everglades.

-These pythons originate from Asia and are the results of released pets.

-Scientists are having virtually no success curbing the growing python population.

-Biologists are worried the snakes may soon target federally-endangered creatures.

Using Your Phone While In Bed Can Lead To Depression And Anxiety

Story Highlights:

  • Waking up in the middle of the night to answer text messages or phone calls has severely negative affects on sleep quality.
  • Poor sleep quality is shown to have a significant impact on the increasing rates of depression and anxiety in college students.
  • 47% of college students reported waking up at night in order to read and respond to notifications on their smartphone.

Women’s Low Belief in Ability to Succeed May Result in Them Being More Vulnerable to Cybersecurity Threats


  • Men and women self-reported different behaviors in regards to cybersecurity and computing, with women believing themselves to be less confident in their cybersecurity behavior.
  • Women self-reported lower levels of computer skills, prior experience with computer security, and ability to protect against dangerous cyber threats than men.
  • To defend against ever-increasing cyber threats, organizations need to develop an effective training strategy to improve employees' cybersecurity behavior.

Increasing Risk of Sexual Assault among College Students

Story Highlights :
  • 11.2% of all students experience sexual assault through physical force, attempted physical force, or drugs
  • Gay, lesbian and bisexual identified individuals have an equal or greater risk of experiencing sexual violence compared with straight individuals
  • Colleges should conduct campus-wide survey to find the percentage of sexual assault cases on campus so that certain measures can be taken accordingly

Study finds that parent's supervision of their child's exposure to alcohol leads girls to drink less and boys to drink less often in college

Story Highlights
  • This study looked at two types of alcohol use supervision: general parental supervision and television supervision
  • The study focused on how the supervision related to three specific drinking habits: the amount  teens drank, how often teens drank and how often teens would binge drink
  • Television supervision was found to have no effect on women, but a large effect on men
  • General parental supervision was found to have a small effect on men, but a large effect on women
(Photo courtesy of and

A study done in 2010 looked at the relationship between college student's childhood parental supervision and their present day drinking habits, with a focus on the differences of these results between men and women.  The results found that men drank less often the more they were generally supervised as a child, and they binged less when the more their television was supervised as a child. Women drank less in one sitting the more they were generally supervised as a child, and they reported no change in drinking habits due to television supervision. 

The Severity of How Separation and Divorce Occur Has Negative Effects on Children's Behavior

Story Highlights:

  •  Children of divorced parents will experience more emotional and behavioral problems than children who live with both biological parents but pre-divorce effects were stronger for boys.
  •  The effect of divorce on children can be predicted by the conditions of separation well before separation occurred.
  •   At current rates 40% of U.S. children will witness breakup of their parents' marriages before they reach 18.

A study conducted by the American Association for the Advancement of Science found that boys were 19% more likely to develop negative behavior by age 11 than girls and at any age from 7-11. The study also found that children are more likely to have behavior problems with the severity of the divorce, if the divorce and separation is not problematic than the child is less likely to develop negative behavioral patterns.

College students' depression, anxiety, and tobacco use results in poor sleep quality

Story Highlights
  • Students with depression and/or anxiety disorders were more likely to report sleep problems.
  • Similarly, students with higher rates of tobacco use were more likely to report sleep problems.
  • Image from
  • Sleep problems of those two groups of students were more likely to affect academic performance than those of other students.

A 2016 study found that college students with depression/anxiety disorders, along with those with tobacco habits, experienced higher numbers of sleep problems than other students.

Survey of Dutch Youth Suggests That When it Comes to Alcohol on Social Media, Context Matters.

Story Highlights:

  • A study of 724 Dutch youth, between the ages of 12 and 30 sought to understand the motivations behind posting (or not) alcohol related content on their social media.  
  • Young people were more likely to post if they were in a social situation where alcohol was a secondary factor. They were more concerned with showing a celebratory social situation.
  • The majority of young people between the ages of 12-18 did not post alcohol related content. The likelihood of of alcohol related posts increased as respondents got older, between 18 to 30.
  • Overall, youth were concerned with long term effects of social media posts on their image.

Media Habits Have Positive Correlation to Internet Addiction and Desire of Pleasure

Story Highlights
  • Internet addiction can happen as a result of personal factors, such as monetary compensation, rather than personal neurological factors.
  • The key aspect of problematic internet use includes the inability to control time spent online, feelings of withdrawal, and the desire to interact online rather than in person. 
  • Social anxiety, depression, and loneliness result from over use to the internet, which is known as internet addiction.
There is a positive relationship between perceptions of internet addiction and the amount of internet usage within a normal population of college students.

Effects can vary from each person, whether they be positive or negative, but it all depends on the desired use of how they use the internet.

Strength of Political Affiliation Influences Willingness to Express Political Views Online

Story Highlights:

  • On Facebook, those with higher partisan strength were less likely to be discouraged from expressing their political views in a perceived hostile opinion climate than those with lower partisan strength
  • In general, in an era of politics being grounds for violence and aggression, most often the people who will be sharing their political views are the ones who have the farthest on each side of the political spectrum
  • Stronger leaning political views will be more widely available in discussions with a hostile online environment than will views of lower partisan strength, which could influence the overall political climate and radicalize political groups and their members

A recent study has found that people with higher levels of partisan strength were more likely to post about their own political views in an online climate of high hostility than those with lower levels. Partisan strength,  the extent to which one associates themselves with a certain political party or ideology, had a moderate effect on their willingness to participate only in more hostile environments. In more welcoming situations, there was no effect between those of low and high affiliations and beliefs. 

In general, a perceived hostile opinion climate online is subjected by the fact that differing opinions are ostracized and other users may be aggressive towards those with these differing opinions. One important distinction that must be made is to clarify that these climates may be either real or perceived, meaning this situation may not always be the case in reality, and possibly is only in the eyes of the beholder, in this case the study participants, who believe what they are experiencing is hostile.

Another important result to keep in mind is that there was an overall decrease in political expression across the board, regardless of partisan strength, under the contentious environments previously mentioned. The conclusion in this study was that those with stronger views were marginally less likely to be discouraged from expressing themselves anyway. This means that stronger partisan views are much more widely available online to everyone in these hostile climates.

The implications of this study are far-reaching. The strongest views could become the most outspoken in online environments. As a result, the researchers believe that political polarization may be further separated by social media. This polarization, the vast and growing gap between liberals and conservatives, as well as other political ideologies, may lead to a blanketing radicalization of opposing political groups and their members.

In today's era, the political spectrum of views has become contentious and inhospitable. For example, the United States has shifted to an antagonistic and combative realm when it comes to public policy matters. This expression of less moderate and more extreme political views online could theoretically even have an effect voting patterns of US citizens, and affect U.S. politics as a whole. 

The study, conducted by Mihee Kim, PhD, from the Department of Journalism and Mass Communication at Sungkyunkwan University in South Korea, released these results in December of 2016 in the journal of Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. She surveyed 277 active Facebook users with a wide range of political views and strengths of political affiliation. 

Mihee Kim initially wanted to understand how political climates and strength of political affiliation affect willingness to express political views online. She hypothesized that different emotional climates on Facebook, either welcoming or hostile, will have a statistical effect on this eagerness to participate. She went on to further hypothesize that those with more ingrained further leaning political views will be more likely to express those views.

Mihee argued: "Individuals not only get political information but also engage in politically expressive behaviors on social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook and Twitter. Opinion expression on SNS has been explained by the spiral of silence theory, which posits that those who see their opinions to be in the minority will be less likely to express their opinion in public." She hoped to exemplify this point through her research, but playing especially close attention to how the differences in partisan strength can have an effect on the basis of that theory.

She determined these results by conducting both mediation and moderation analyses of the data which she had collected in her study. This process was used to numerically quantify the responses of the participants. A simplified version of the results can be found below.

When the experiment was finished, it was confirmed that her hypothesis was correct and supported by the data she collected. The previously discussed results accurately described what she was trying to prove when she created the study.

In conclusion, the results of this study should not be mindlessly overlooked by the general public. If political participants aren't aware of the types of political expression they are more often exposed to online on social media, then they may be more likely to be drawn further along either side of the spectrum. This radicalization could have long sweeping impacts on politics across the globe. 

Group situations significantly alter the decisions and attitudes of college students

Story Highlights:
- When put into groups, young adults can become negatively influenced by a group member who displays the character traits of a jerk, slacker, or depressive pessimist.

- Students performed 35% worse in groups where a person displayed a negative character trait compared to a group with all determined individuals with positive traits.

- College students conform with the majority of a group, even in clearly wrong situations, around 75% of the time.

College Students are easily influenced by others around them. Often times a single member can bring down the group as a whole, in other instances, one member who knows the correct answer will agree with the group answer as opposed to his own, showing that young adults conform to the actions of others.

Newer, safer drug for treatment of opiate addiction falls short of older, riskier method.

Story Highlights:
  • Methadone is currently the most effective drug used to treat long-term opiate addiction, but risks patient withdrawal or overdose.
  • Buprenorphine is a similar drug that carries less risk for abuse and overdose, but has failed to replace Methadone as the top option. 
  • The properties that make Methadone dangerous turn out to be the same ones that keep addicts coming back to the treatment drug instead of relapsing.
Methadone is the most common treatment for long-term opiate addiction, and despite efforts to develop safer alternatives, no other drug performs quite as well in clinical trials. One such alternative, Buprenorphine, has been shown to have significantly less potential for abuse and overdose. However, less subjects complete treatment with Buprenorphine because it doesn't satisfy their desire for the rush or high felt with more active opioids like Methadone or heroin.

In patients that completed the entire study, Buprenorphine performed comparably, not favorably, to Methadone. Methadone treated patients, however, were more likely to fully cooperate and participate in treatment. Health care providers and patients alike were found to prefer the cheaper, more familiar Methadone. 

Students in Great Britian are Very Impulsive When Posting Risky Activites Online

Story Highlights
  • Undergrads are posting things such as alcohol, private information, and even nudity.
  • Young adults are not focused on being employed in future but rather keeping the "cool kid" reputation.
  • Pressure to fit in usually affect the riskiness of the post.

Youth in Great Britain have proven to be more impulsive when posting online.

Controls within the study were self-presentation measure and time spent online. This enabled the researchers to form a scale to relate risky posts with qualities of the people doing the posting. The study does acknowledge its own limitations in that it only examined the undergraduate students in Great Britain and Italy and does not account for the population in the rest of the world. 

This study can be applied mostly anywhere. It concluded that while many youths post impulsively, they are often fully aware of what they are doing. This does not mean that they do not come to regret their decisions when they go in for their first interview. Young adults aren’t as focused on being employable in the future as they are about maintaining their “cool kid” reputation.

It can only make you wonder: Is the photo of the glass of beer shared with friends really worth a life-long career? What is the reasoning for such an impulsive post? The University of
Plymouth has the answers. They studied undergrads in the UK and Italy to monitor their postings on social media and what caused them. While it was shown that as a whole, the young people posted generally similar things, there were some difference. The study proved that British impulsivity was greater than that of the Italians. 

While most social networking sites offer free subscriptions to its members, the long term effects could be ruining your entire financial future. A group more susceptible to these damaging sites is students, particularly college age. The temptation to post one’s every move is infecting undergrads across the globe. In today’s culture, a reputation is more important than a resume. Regardless of ones credentials, employers are still searching through their applicants’ social networking handles to ensure they are hiring a good all-around candidate. 

Study analyzes all deaths in North Carolina caused from venomous and nonvenomous animals over an 18 year period

Story Highlights

  • This study examines animal injuries caused by both venomous and nonvenomous animals.
  • 92 deaths occurred during an 18 year period primarily from insects, horses, and dogs.
  • Many injuries and deaths can be corrected by educating and increasing the awareness of potential danger of injuries from animals. 
(photograph: Timothy and Amie, Nicole Rolleri, 2008)>

While more than one million people die each year on our nation’s roadways, and many more through violence and other accidents, this study examined human injuries from animals.                                                                                

As common as animal injuries are, deaths are rare. This study examined all injuries and deaths that occurred from venomous and nonvenomous animals in North Carolina over an 18-year period between 1972-1989. By reviewing the results, researchers were able to learn about animal behavior and help prevent future injuries.


During the study period, fatalities occurred in 53 of North Carolina’s 100 counties. Results found that over the years from 1972-1989, 92 deaths occurred. Deaths occurred in all months from January to February but were most likely to occur from June to November. 

The average victim age was 46.1 years old and a total range of 1-93 years old­­­. An average of 5 deaths occurred each year but there were some years that were not consistent. For example, in 1976 there was only one death but in 1989 there were 10 deaths.

This study looked at both wild and domestic animals including the categories of pig, snake, cattle, horse, insect/spider, dog, and sea life.

As far as animal type involved in each fatality the following results were Pig (2.2%), Snake (3.3%), Cattle (9.8%), Horse (21.7%), Insect/Spider (45.7%), Dog (15.2%), and Sea life (2.2%).

In North Carolina, the general population was 49% male in 1980. For this study, 75% of victims were male and 25% were female. The demographics of the victims included the following: whites (78.5%), blacks (19.4%), and Asians (1.1%).

The injuries occurred in such places as farms (26%), residences (48%), industry (4%), the public domain (16%), and other places (6%).

Alcohol was measured in 41 of the victims’ cases. In 10 of the 41 alcohol-related cases, elevated blood alcohol was detected and 8 of these 10 had levels of over 0.1 BAC.

Insects were responsible for almost half of the fatalities in this study and all deaths by insects but one resulted from an allergic reaction. Researchers said that some of these deaths could have been prevented if the victims were aware of their allergies and took precautions.

In this study, fatal injuries from horses were the second leading cause. Horse injuries from riding are common and the rider can be trampled, kicked, or crushed. Head injuries are most associated with fatalities but many are preventable if the rider wears proper boots, nonskid gloves, non-loose fitting clothes, and protective headgear.

Cattle injuries are also potentially preventable. To reduce these injuries, people should avoid trying to herd them alone, standing near the heads of the bulls, or having a plan of escape in case anything goes wrong.

Proper education of people to avoid snakes and carry the proper first-aid precautions should drastically reduce the number of snakebite injuries. 

Jaewook, an animal science staff member shares his thoughts on animal injuries. 

A printout of all listed human deaths from animals in the North Carolina medical examiner database was retrieved from the North Carolina Department of Human Resources.

Laws in North Carolina require that all accidental or suspicious deaths be investigated through the state medical examiner’s system.

From the report of investigation by the medical examiner, information was taken regarding the deaths. Researchers from this study evaluated the circumstances of each death based on the reports and seven categories of animals were developed.

Although this study is old, the results and take-home message are still valuable and serve a purpose. There are very few studies on bites and sting injuries but few that cover venomous and nonvenomous insects.

At the time of this study, information was not readily accessible when in came to animal-related injuries but the results helped provide researchers with a better understanding of animal deaths and potential solutions.

Alcohol was found in 41 of the 92 death cases and there were many victims that were unaware of their allergies. What this study is trying to say is that many animal deaths and injuries are PREVENTABLE. Alcohol impairs judgement and motor skills which is not a smart decision when  dealing with animals. 

Julian, an animal science major explains ways to avoid animal injuries.

In the meantime, it’s important to educate the medical community and general public on the potential danger associated with animals. As educating the public goes, increasing animal danger awareness should be heavily stressed in schools starting in kindergarten.

Before this study, there were very few studies that existed that evaluated human deaths due to both venomous and nonvenomous animals. Injuries from animals are common and are a major public health problem.

A lot of money is spent per year just to treat individuals that suffered an animal attack. Although this study looked at venomous and nonvenomous animals, the majority of animal attacks in the United States happened from domestic dogs.

There is an estimated 1-2 million animal bites each year and bites from dogs account for 70-93% of the total. An average of 153 deaths occurred from venomous and nonvenomous animals in the United States in 2016.

As you can see there are different factors for animal injuries and the aim of this study was to examine all deaths caused by venomous and nonvenomous animals in North Carolina over an 18-year period.