The smartphone is taking an increasing number of roles in society and is a great example of technological convergence. Simply looking at GPS, there are a wide variety of applications that can be used instead of a standalone GPS such as Waze, Google Maps, and Apple Maps. People can simply use their phones to find their way around and avoid having physical maps or standalone devices. Furthermore, more and more people are using their smartphones as their primary digital camera and portable media player.
People probably never imagined using cell phones as a GPS device when they were first invented. They also probably did not imagine that the cell phones could change the way GPS works either. Looking at Waze, the social GPS application, users can actively participate in observing and avoiding flows of traffic by reporting areas of high traffic to the application itself.
When people buy a smartphone, they are not just buying a device that they can make calls with. Cell phone companies are packing a plethora of different technologies into their products and they continue to add more. You buy a cell phone, but you also get a device that can access the internet, a camera, a music player, a GPS device, and the list goes on and on.